Fukushima is worse than Chernobyl.(On Global Contamination)(Interview): An article from: Synthesis/Regeneration

The three major nuclear power plant accidents – Fukushima Daiichi in 2011, Three Mile Island in 1979, and Chernobyl in 1986 – are fully covered in this authoritative collection of official reports, with over 1,300 pages.

Fukushima Accident: This thorough compilation of official information and documents includes material from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. government agencies, and official sources in Japan – providing an authoritative running narrative of the event as it happened hour by hour, plus important and little-known background data. TEPCO’s latest roadmap for achieving a cool shutdown of the damaged reactors and dealing with the accident is covered. Expert testimony before the U.S. Senate and material from the NRC discusses the safety of U.S. nuclear facilities in light of the Fukushima accident; there is extensive discussion of the earthquake risk at California power plants, emergency planning for loss of coolant accidents, and preparations for public health impacts. Information from the EPA and FDA deals with the effects of radiation from Fukushima on the environment and food supply of the United States. A unique chapter provides the running account of TEPCO’s problems and radiation leaks from the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station in Niigata Prefecture following a strong earthquake in 2007.

Contents: Chapter 1: Roadmap towards Restoration from the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station; Chapter 2: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Statements on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Through mid-April; Chapter 3: Japan Government Statements and Notices About the Fukushima Nuclear Crisis – including News Briefings by Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), Chief Cabinet Secretary Edano, and Prime Minister Kan; Chapter 4: CRS Report for Congress – Fukushima Nuclear Crisis; Chapter 5: Nuclear Regulatory Commission Material; Chapter 6: American Government Agencies; Chapter 7: Energy Department Material; Chapter 8: Testimony before the U.S. Senate; Chapter 9: Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Press Releases Regarding the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station after the Niigata-Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake (2007 Incident and Response).

TMI: The 1979 nuclear meltdown accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) plant in Pennsylvania is fully covered in this authoritative collection of official documents with details about the accident and its aftermath, including the immediate and long-term health effects, a full reproduction of the report of the President’s Commission on the Accident at TMI, detailed timelines of the accident with technical information on the accident, fuel core meltdown, the evacuations, political reactions, media reports, and public consequences, and much more. Although the TMI-2 plant suffered a severe core meltdown, the most dangerous kind of nuclear power accident, it did not produce the worst-case consequences that reactor experts had long feared. In a worst-case accident, the melting of nuclear fuel would lead to a breach of the walls of the containment building and release massive quantities of radiation to the environment. But this did not occur as a result of the three Mile Island accident.

Chernobyl: The 1986 radiation accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in the Ukraine is fully covered in this authoritative collection of official documents with details about the accident and its aftermath, including the immediate and long-term health consequences, the release of radioactive cesium and iodine, thyroid cancer cases, the containment of the destroyed Unit 4 reactor, American reaction and response, and much more.

This is a privately authored news service and educational publication of Progressive Management.

21st Century Textbooks of Military Medicine – Medical Consequences of Nuclear Warfare: Radiation, Radionuclide Contamination, Power Plant Accidents, Chernobyl (Emergency War Surgery Series)

From the much-referenced and highly acclaimed Textbooks of Military Medicine series, Medical Consequences of Nuclear Warfare provides a detailed review of nuclear events and their consequences, plus a comprehensive examination of the effects of radiation exposure on humans. Civilian and low-level effects are considered along with the military implications of nuclear warfare; there is also a discussion of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Chapters cover:

Nuclear Events and Their Consequences
Acute Radiation Syndrome in Humans
Triage and Treatment of Radiation-Injured Mass Casualties
Treatment of Internal Radionuclide Contamination
Infectious Complications of Radiation Injury
Biological Assessment of Radiation Damage
Behavioral and Neurophysiological Changes with Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
Psychological Factors in Nuclear Warfare
Long-term and Low-level Effects of Ionizing Radiation
Radiological Considerations in Medical Operations
Prospects for Radioprotection

The likelihood of accidental detonations, small-yield nuclear attacks in regional conflicts, and radiation injuries in reactors and weapons plants increases as familiarity with this powerful force spreads. Given the devastating medical consequences that would follow a nuclear detonation or accident, the training of the medical corps in treating radiation syndromes will be a crucial factor in the effective management of casualties. The rapidly expanding science of medical radiobiology has greatly affected the prospective readiness of the military medical corps to deal with these injuries. The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute has been a leader in the establishment of the base of scientific and clinical knowledge from which the current concepts of medical management have evolved. In addition to research, the institute is involved in continuing medical education and in our nation’s emergency response system.

The first chapter is an overview of nuclear events and their consequences. The following chapters examine the effects of radiation exposure on humans and the ways they will affect triage, diagnosis, and treatment protocols as well as military logistics. A discussion of the latest prospects for radioprotection concludes the text. It is possible that no amount of knowledge or training will help any medical unit to deal with the mass casualties that a large-scale radiation incident or accident would incur. However, data from accidental and therapeutic radiation exposures, together with ongoing clinical research results, are all useful in determining the treatment of individual victims of smaller incidents who are in a position to be saved.

The most likely situations requiring a medical response are the use of weapons against a deployed naval force, a remote city, or a remote facility; a third-world conflict; a terrorist act; or an accident involving a nuclear weapon. Military medical preparedness can focus beyond nuclear weapon events. Today, nuclear material is used in medicine, industry, and power generation, bringing increased risk of occupational and accidental exposures. New radiation hazards in space will have to be overcome if successful peacetime and military uses of that frontier are to be realized. Military physicians trained to respond to weapons related injuries can bring expertise to these situations.

Weapons-related injuries can be best understood after examining the destructive forces––blast, thermal, and radiation–that produce them. In comparison with a conventional explosive weapon, a nuclear weapon’s effectiveness is due to its unequalled capacity to liberate a tremendous quantity of energy in a very small space in an extremely short time. A simple description of the physical processes taking place within the first few thousandths of a second after a nuclear weapon detonation is presented.

Nuclear Power Meltdowns and Explosions (The Science of Electricity)

This book explains everything about nuclear meltdowns and nuclear power plant explosions.

In the first chapter we explain how meltdowns and explosions occur. In the second chapter we discuss the details of Three Mile Island. In the third chapter we discuss the details of the infamous explosion of Chernobyl. The final chapter discusses technology and processes which can be put in place to prevent meltdowns and explosions. The Appendix has suggested guides related to the safe design and operation of nuclear power plants.

Table of Contents

A. The Science of Meltdowns and Explosions
1. Meltdowns and Explosions: Overview
2. Melting Points
3. Possible Results of a Meltdown
4. Explosion by Excessive Chain Reaction
5. Explosion by Hydrogen gas
6. Size of Potential Explosions in Nuclear Power Plant

B. Three Mile Island
1. Three Mile Island: Overview
2. Three Mile Island: Details of Events

C. Chernobyl
1. Chernobyl: Overview
2. Chernobyl: Details of Events
3. Design flaws in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

D. Making Nuclear Power Plants Safer
1. Introduction
2. Design and Construction of Nuclear Power Plants
3. Control Room
4. Training of Operators
5. Regulations and Inspections
6. Maintenance
7. Communication and Emergency Planning
8. Defense in Depth
9. Nuclear Safety Standards

Appendix
1. American Nuclear Society Standards
2. NRC Regulation Guides

Complete Guide to the Three Worst Nuclear Power Plant Accidents: Fukushima 2011, Three Mile Island 1979, and Chernobyl 1986 – Authoritative Coverage of Radiation Releases and Effects

The three major nuclear power plant accidents – Fukushima Daiichi in 2011, Three Mile Island in 1979, and Chernobyl in 1986 – are fully covered in this authoritative collection of official reports, with over 1,300 pages.

Fukushima Accident: This thorough compilation of official information and documents includes material from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. government agencies, and official sources in Japan – providing an authoritative running narrative of the event as it happened hour by hour, plus important and little-known background data. TEPCO’s latest roadmap for achieving a cool shutdown of the damaged reactors and dealing with the accident is covered. Expert testimony before the U.S. Senate and material from the NRC discusses the safety of U.S. nuclear facilities in light of the Fukushima accident; there is extensive discussion of the earthquake risk at California power plants, emergency planning for loss of coolant accidents, and preparations for public health impacts. Information from the EPA and FDA deals with the effects of radiation from Fukushima on the environment and food supply of the United States. A unique chapter provides the running account of TEPCO’s problems and radiation leaks from the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station in Niigata Prefecture following a strong earthquake in 2007.

Contents: Chapter 1: Roadmap towards Restoration from the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station; Chapter 2: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Statements on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Through mid-April; Chapter 3: Japan Government Statements and Notices About the Fukushima Nuclear Crisis – including News Briefings by Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), Chief Cabinet Secretary Edano, and Prime Minister Kan; Chapter 4: CRS Report for Congress – Fukushima Nuclear Crisis; Chapter 5: Nuclear Regulatory Commission Material; Chapter 6: American Government Agencies; Chapter 7: Energy Department Material; Chapter 8: Testimony before the U.S. Senate; Chapter 9: Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Press Releases Regarding the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station after the Niigata-Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake (2007 Incident and Response).

TMI: The 1979 nuclear meltdown accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) plant in Pennsylvania is fully covered in this authoritative collection of official documents with details about the accident and its aftermath, including the immediate and long-term health effects, a full reproduction of the report of the President’s Commission on the Accident at TMI, detailed timelines of the accident with technical information on the accident, fuel core meltdown, the evacuations, political reactions, media reports, and public consequences, and much more. Although the TMI-2 plant suffered a severe core meltdown, the most dangerous kind of nuclear power accident, it did not produce the worst-case consequences that reactor experts had long feared. In a worst-case accident, the melting of nuclear fuel would lead to a breach of the walls of the containment building and release massive quantities of radiation to the environment. But this did not occur as a result of the three Mile Island accident.

Chernobyl: The 1986 radiation accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in the Ukraine is fully covered in this authoritative collection of official documents with details about the accident and its aftermath, including the immediate and long-term health consequences, the release of radioactive cesium and iodine, thyroid cancer cases, the containment of the destroyed Unit 4 reactor, American reaction and response, and much more.

This is a privately authored news service and educational publication of Progressive Management.

Ablaze: The Story of the Heroes and Victims of Chernobyl

A moment-by-moment account of the events that immediately preceded and followed the devastating explosion of the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl describes what has happened to the survivors and the neighboring countryside since the disaster. 40,000 first printing.

Chernobyl – The Untold Meltdown (Facts and Poetry)

The historical facts presented here in poetry style have been written to entertain and inform you, in that order. Twenty years or so, is the time experts predict that it will take for the Chernobyl reactor’s melted magma of Uranium rods, to drill by super-heating and melting effect, the protective biological shield that was built in 1986 to contain the exposed radiation source. We’re really playing with fire… A historical synopsis of events in poetry style.

Meltdown at Chernobyl

“A damning history of the Chernobyl affair, from its origins in the plant’s primitive design and careless management to the economic and political crisis the accident precipitated.” —Clenn Garelik, New York Times Book Review

On the morning of April 26, 1986, a Soviet nuclear plant at Chernobyl (near Kiev) exploded, pouring radioactivity into the environment and setting off the worst disaster in the history of nuclear energy. Now a former Soviet scientist gives a comprehensive account of the catastrophe.

Vol. 171, No. 5, National Geographic Magazine, May 1987: At Home with the Arctic Wolf; Ukraine; Chernobyl–One Year After; New Zealand: The Last Utopia?; The Captivating Kiwifruit

Normal Accidents analyzes the social side of technological risk. Charles Perrow argues that the conventional engineering approach to ensuring safety–building in more warnings and safeguards–fails because systems complexity makes failures inevitable. He asserts that typical precautions, by adding to complexity, may help create new categories of accidents. (At Chernobyl, tests of a new safety system helped produce the meltdown and subsequent fire.) By recognizing two dimensions of risk–complex versus linear interactions, and tight versus loose coupling–this book provides a powerful framework for analyzing risks and the organizations that insist we run them.

The first edition fulfilled one reviewer’s prediction that it “may mark the beginning of accident research.” In the new afterword to this edition Perrow reviews the extensive work on the major accidents of the last fifteen years, including Bhopal, Chernobyl, and the Challenger disaster. The new postscript probes what the author considers to be the “quintessential ‘Normal Accident'” of our time: the Y2K computer problem.

Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies

Normal Accidents analyzes the social side of technological risk. Charles Perrow argues that the conventional engineering approach to ensuring safety–building in more warnings and safeguards–fails because systems complexity makes failures inevitable. He asserts that typical precautions, by adding to complexity, may help create new categories of accidents. (At Chernobyl, tests of a new safety system helped produce the meltdown and subsequent fire.) By recognizing two dimensions of risk–complex versus linear interactions, and tight versus loose coupling–this book provides a powerful framework for analyzing risks and the organizations that insist we run them.

The first edition fulfilled one reviewer’s prediction that it “may mark the beginning of accident research.” In the new afterword to this edition Perrow reviews the extensive work on the major accidents of the last fifteen years, including Bhopal, Chernobyl, and the Challenger disaster. The new postscript probes what the author considers to be the “quintessential ‘Normal Accident'” of our time: the Y2K computer problem.